Understanding The Artist Growth Funnel

written by Neil Cartwright & Jackson Bull

What Is Growth HackingMusic Growth Hacking is fundamental to the current music marketing. As the music business becomes a multiformat industry, growth hacking sits at the heart of concepts such as The Fan Economy and The Artist Economy. First, please let me make the following point, because it bothers me:When writing about music, I often feel uncomfortable referring to fans as ‘Customers’. Terms like “Acquisition”, which are used in everyday marketing, seem a crude way to describe the artist-to-fan relationship. For instance, when I discover an artist I like, then follow them on Spotify and perhaps join their mailing list, I hate to think I’ve been ‘acquired’ by them.However, when describing growth funnel techniques, it’s difficult to avoid the marketing terminology used to describe the tools and processes. So, I’d ask that for this article, let’s both agree the terms suck, but for the sake of describing growth hacking, let’s put our unease to one side?Growth Hacking is the process of moving fans along a ‘Growth Funnel’.

Introduction To Music Growth Hacking


The first step is to be heard.As we all know, getting heard is a battle in itself. This is the role of marketing, getting on Spotify playlists, creating a buzz and promotions. I’ve written articles covering these subjects so won’t dwell too much here.

Activation – Likes, Follows & Subscribes

This is a major change across all media. The ability for people to Like, Follow or Subscribe. For instance, on Spotify, listeners can Like (❤️) a song or Follow an artist. I’ll explore the benefits, although most people know that it’s generally a good thing for a fan to do.Our initial challenge in growth hacking is to encourage listeners to become Followers. This is an activation.


Having lots of Followers and Subscribers is to be welcomed. However, it’s not the same as having a direct relationship. Unfortunately platforms such as Spotify, Facebook, Instagram, TikTok etc make it difficult to build these direct relationships. There are some justified reasons for this. We’ll be exploring those, plus techniques to get personal details.


The most powerful form of marketing for music is word of mouth. No matter how large your marketing budget, it pales in comparison to one friend saying to another, “Hey, have you checked out this artist? They’re awesome!”Turning your fans into advocates is key to growing your fanbase organically.


Fact is, revenue from streaming isn’t going to pay the bills for most artists. The Artist Economy describes how the music business is now multi-format, i.e. revenue comes from many different sources. The good news is there are lots of different sources. The bad news is they require time & care to ensure they’re harnessed properly, managed effectively and maximised.The Music Eco-SystemMusic, artists and fans currently inhabit a complex mix of social media and DSP’s. These platforms assist discovery, likes and follows. However, they make it difficult to build a commercial relationship, i.e. direct from artist to fan. There are a variety of reasons for this:

  1. The platforms don’t want to lose their position as central to the relationship – most are based on advertising.
  2. They want a percentage of any transaction, if possible
  3. There are some legitimate privacy concerns

The eco-system is dominated by several huge players. Using broad definitions, these can be summarised below.

Let’s look at the common traits:

  • The relationship between an artist and their audience is built on the concept of Likes and Follows.
  • Some of the services enable chat or comments between the artist and a fan. However, this is strictly on a one to one, not one to many, basis. This makes it difficult to scale for large fanbases.
  • Where services do allow one-to-many, e.g. a Facebook or Twitter post, the actual number of Followers who read the post is variable and difficult to know.
  • Services such as YouTube, Facebook and Twitter encourage fans to advertise to reach fans.
  • Events can be advertised but ticket sales tend to be forced through a preferred partner of the platform
  • Merchandise can be sold via links but there is limited opportunity to upsell
  • None of the services enable artists to offer their own subscription
  • There is very limited scope to segment the audience that would enable effective targeting.

These problems tend to be exacerbated at scale. For artists with thousands or millions of Followers, it’s extremely difficult (and costly) to send targeted, relevant messages.

For many of these reasons, K-Pop band BTS and their record label, Big Hit, decided to build their own platform, WeVerse, that provides many of the services found on social media (video, streaming, chat etc) but enables the band to build a direct relationship.

Unfortunately, not every band is in the enviable positon of being able to build their own platform 🙂

I can’t deny social media platforms and the DSP’s have made it extraordinarily easy to discover and share music.

Personally, as a music fan, I love Spotify. I’ve been a subscriber since 2009. I listen to it pretty much every day.

However, as someone who works with artists, I find it frustrating. I can see artists with millions of plays but with virtually no way to build a direct relationship with their audience.

Spotify have introduced a couple of features – live listings and merchandise – but these are both provided via third party suppliers.To build a direct relationship, an artist must work every opportunity available to them to encourage fans to leave the closed environment of the platforms towards the only place where a direct relationship can be built; the artist website.

In fact, the platforms have done such a good job of making it easy to upload music and video, there is a generation of artists who think websites and mailing lists are, in a way, “old fashioned”. It’s not surprising the likes of Facebook do what they can to perpetuate this, since it benefits their advertising revenue if artists push their fanbase to use the Facebook platform.

The Growth Funnel is focused on moving casual listeners of an artist towards being fans with a direct relationship.

Since the platforms do not make this easy, Growth Hacking is employed to use techniques to move fans along the growth funnel.

This is a similar concept to Click Funnels that are well documented & understood by companies working within direct marketing. Advertising and landing pages are used to maximise conversion rates and work out the most efficient ‘cost of acquisition’.

The most common ways to draw fans into the funnel are:

  1. Links, wherever possible
  2. Incentives
  3. Text
  4. Images
  5. Videos
  6. Offers

Not every platform allow these. For instance, Spotify won’t allow marketing messages to be placed on photos. However, they allow text in the bio.To understand growth hacking, it’s probably best to ask yourself, what do you do when you hear a track you like on Spotify? I’ll describer my process:

  1. I hear a track on a playlist that grabs my attention.
  2. I have several playlists, so consider for a brief moment, which of my personal playlists is the most appropriate and save the track to that playlist.
  3. If I really like a track I go to the ‘About’ section and read the Bio.
  4. If I like what I read in the Bio, then I might, MIGHT, Follow the artist

That’s it. Years ago I would have made a trip to the record store and bought the artist’s album.

Now, I make a decision about which playlist their song belongs on and whether to Follow them.My initial engagement with an artist typically consists of reading their Bio.

If they’re a ‘Current’ artist then I’m more likely to Follow to stay updated with new material.

Ask yourself, what do you do?

Perhaps you’ll click on a link to the artist Facebook page? Perhaps you’ll do a search for them on Wikipedia. Or maybe go to their official website, if you’re really intrigued.

In other words, our initial engagement is often small, tentative and non-committal.

And, it’s precisely because these initial steps are so small, it’s important to make them, first as easy as possible and second, maximise every opportunity.

Despite the fact the first thing I do is read the Bio I’m struck by how few artists pay it any attention, beyond copy and pasting their press bio or thinking they can create some mysticism by being minimal.

Imagine, in the ‘old days’, an artist review in the NME that simply said “Hi, thanks for reading”.

The gig listings are just as bad. Pre-COVID I would often look at the Spotify concert listings to see if any of the bands I Follow were playing near me. Occasionally I’d see one playing in a venue not far from me. But what then?

For one thing, I had to find someone else who would go with me. Look, I don’t mind going to gigs on my own, but I much prefer making a night of it – drinks, see friends, food.

But also, I find the way bands treat their gig listing on Spotify is very remote and detached. Rarely a mention in the Bio. No incentives to join their mailing list with an offer.

Given the perilous state of artist’s current finances I can’t understand why they don’t take this opportunity to move fans through the growth funnel and towards a direct relationship.

The Artist Economy means, building stronger relationships with fans. It recognises that artists are central to the relationship but fans are at different stages in their journey.

Break Time

Congrats! You made it to the second half of this very long article. So before you continue, I recommend taking a break. Stretch, use the bathroom, grab an ice-cold, crisp coke (or pepsi!)

Understanding The Artist Growth Funnel, Pt. 2

My last article, we examined the data behind some of the top trending artists on Tiktok. Within that analysis, we discovered just how important it is for an artist to engage with their fans. In the case of Olivia Rodrigo, having a robust fanbase (which was bigger than 75% of other artists in the sample) before a big release can have a huge impact on streaming.

But where exactly can you find your audience? As Neil mentioned, getting listeners from music providers to social media is the second step inthe growth funnel (Aquisition -> Activation)

The music industry today is an overly convoluted marketplace with lots of redundancy; choosing the option best for you can be overwhelming and risky. Afterall, there are only so many hours in a day to spend online; so the trick is to find the path that’ll gain the most exposure with the least amount of detours. So the decision ultimately comes down to which platform people within your community are using.

In this second half, I will be analyzing data for artists across three big channels to find out which ones are most correlated with Spotify follower growth. These three channels are Twitter, Instagram, and Tiktok.

The sample of observations include artists who had previously been added to Alternative VIBES, an independently curated playlist on Spotify. VIBE Lifestyle’s playlist has 117,000 followers who are interested in alternative, emo, pop-oriented, rock.

The Data

Before we move on to the analysis, it’s important to take a moment to describe the dataset.

  • 98 unique tracks
  • 89 unique artists (several artists had multiple tracks on the playlist)
  • All tracks have been added and removed between July 10th, 2020 – February 6th, 2021

Checkout my Github page for a detailed documentation of variable names and descriptions.

Dependent Variable – Net Follower Gain/Loss(Spotify)

Whenever an artist lands on a playlist, a bump in their streams should be expected. Imagine: Seemingly overnight, a completely different group of people see your name on the playlist, never having heard of you the day before. Italian rock duo Atwood (13,124 monthly listeners) on the same list as English rock duo Royal Blood (3.7 million monthly listeners)…quite a testament of talent. The true sign of success, however, is if an artist converts those additional listeners to followers who’ll remain by them even after they’ve been removed from the playlist. So by subtracting the number of followers 7 days before the playlist from the number 7 days after the removal date, we end up with our dependent variable: Net Follower Gain/Loss(Spotify). We’ll use its values to measure what kind of an effect our independent variables may have on it.

Independent Variables

  • Number of Twitter followers 7 days before playlist add date
  • Number of Instagram followers 7 days before playlist add date
  • Number of Tiktok followers 7 days before playlist add date


Our research of each platform includes a quantitative analysis of two continuous variables: the number of social media followers 7-days before each artist’s playlist add date and the net gain of Spotify followers. We’ll then use Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient to measure the relationship between the two. If you’re not familiar with this test, PCC is based on a scale from -1 to 1; the latter being positively correlated and the former negatively correlated.Secondly, we will illustrate what portion of the sample has an official presence on the platform at hand.


  • Pearson’s Correlation: .60
  • 74% of artists have Twitter accounts
  • 26% do not have Twitter


  • Pearson’s Correlation: .77
  • 72% of artists have Instagram accounts
  • 28% do not have Instagram


  • Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (PCC): .50
  • 20% of artists have Tiktok accounts
  • 80% do not have Tiktok

Net Gain – Spotify Followers

Min: -5 / Mean: 32,127 / Max: 373,108 / 25th percentile: 354 / Median: 2,226 / 75th percentile: 24,226 / Interquartile range (IQR): 23,872
Min: -5 / Mean: 32,127 / Max: 373,108 / 25th percentile: 354 / Median: 2,226 / 75th percentile: 24,226 / Interquartile range (IQR): 23,872
  • Green dots indicate artists with Twitter, Instagram, and Tiktok accounts
  • Red dots indicate artists who do not have Tiktok accounts
  • Blue indicates those who only have Twitter accounts
  • Black dots only have instagram accounts


  • Top performers all have Tiktok accounts, despite only 20% of these artists having an official presense within the app
  • Artists with only Twitter and Instagram accounts is the second most successful group in terms of growth

Final Insights

  • Instagram & Twitter are the most popular social channels for these artists, however Tiktok has the most potential for gain given that the most extreme outliers are all on Tiktok
  • Instagram’s influence on Spotify followers is greater than Twitter’s impact as indicated my Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient
  • This community’s footprint is larger on Instagram and Twitter compared to Tiktok. But how does engagement compare across the three
  • The majority of artists on Alternative VIBES have somewhere between 1,500 and 280,000 followers on Spotify before they were added to the playlist
  • The median gain in Spotify followers for artists with Tiktoks is 15,323 vs. 1,688 for those not on the platform. The top 25% gained more than 25,000
  • Most of the artists who have either Twitter or Instagram experienced average growth between 354 and 24k Spotify fans. In my opinion, Baby Queen(3,045 net gain), Spacey Jane(7,545 net gain), and No Love For The Middle Child(1,688 net gain) could have higher growth if they focused more on fan first marketing techniques and engaged more with fans through video app-sharing platforms like Tiktok.
  • The Flaming Lips, who only has a Twitter account, is the one exception to this group with a gain of 26k followers. But they already had a huge following that was built by their world-renowned live performances back in the day.
  • One big emerging trend to watch is the notion of fan-first-marketing strategies that prioritize direct-to-fan engagement. With The Band is the latest platform focused on this type of artist marketing. As we’ve seen throughout this research, having more fans before a playlist -add generally yields higher fan growth and therefore…more streams.

Further Analysis

In my next post, I will dive deeper into this playlist to find out why some artists who are on all three didn’t gain as many fans as other artists who have the same social presense. Are certain subgenres not as popular? Does release frequency have an impact on growth? Or does engagement play a role?

Other Questions
  • Given monthly revenue data for each artist, what is the monetary value of each follower. Does a follower on instagram generate more revenue than a follower on Twitter, Tiktok?

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